Margaret Mossford Barber

A Natural Educator

By Gail Dillaway

Margaret Mossford Barber

Margaret Mossford Barber, born on April 6, 1888, dedicated her life to the education of children. Her education career was primarily spent as a teacher in one room schoolhouses common at the time. However after a long career as a teacher, she earned a position as a principal at the Paterson, Washington elementary school just prior to her retirement in 1957. The story of Margaret Barber is the story of a woman who believed in the value of education and strived to provide to her students the tools which she knew would empower them. It is a story which spans 87 years and touches countless lives.

Margaret was born to English parents, Jess and Harriet Mossford who were territorial pioneers in the Stillaguamish Valley about a mile east of Silvana. Her father wanted her to pursue a life of farming but Margaret had other interests. She was particularly interested in the arts and eventually this led her to a career in teaching. After attending Jackson School, a pioneer school and Island School, she spent four years at Arlington High School where she graduated as valedictorian with the highest honors. Since her graduation from high school predated consolidated school districts and formal teacher training programs, Margaret was able to simply take a teacher’s examination which qualified her for a job as a teacher.

She began teaching in 1912 at the one room Higgins School in Hazel, Washington where she taught grades one through eight. One room schoolhouses provided a large challenge to the teacher in charge. Teachers were responsible for providing daily lesson plans for all grades in their school. For Margaret this meant plans for students in 8 grades and each lesson had to focus on 4 or more subjects. Although schools of this type played an important part in the education of the nation’s youth, there was no teacher training and the curriculum was dependent upon the background of the individual teachers. Uniform curriculum and curricular standards were something that would be introduced when school districts began to consolidate. For Margaret, this was exhilarating and she welcomed the opportunity to teach Latin, ancient history, algebra, physical geography and English or whatever she deemed important to her students’ education. While teaching at the Higgins School, she was able to earn a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Western College of Education (then called Bellingham Normal School). She received her degree and a life-time teaching certificate by 1924. Margaret went on to teach at Sixprong near Goldendale, a school near Lake Washington and eventually the Tualco School near Monroe, Washington. All of these schools consisted of multi-grade classrooms.

The Tualco School was located on Tualco Road outside of the town of Monroe. The first Tualco School was built in 1876 and later replaced with the second school in 1908. Students matriculated into either the Monroe or DuVall school districts upon graduation from the Tualco School. Margaret taught at the second school which still stands today and is now home to the Tualco Grange. In 1924, the same year that she received her Bachelor of Arts degree, Margaret Mossford married Clarence Barber, a Knoxville, Tennessee architect. They purchased a home in Monroe where Margaret remained after the death of her husband in 1957 and until her death in 1975. Margaret gave birth to a son, Bruce, who subsequently went on to have three children of his own, two sons and a daughter. As a result of her many years teaching in one room schoolhouses, Margaret developed a strong philosophy of teaching. With a school full of students ranging in ages from 6 to 16 which was characteristic of one room schoolhouses, a teacher giving instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic had to prepare a variety of individualized lessons. Pupils were exposed to every lesson many times as “by rote learning” was the favored method of education in these settings. Students heard the lessons repeatedly as older children recited to the teacher in front of the room and then later read it for themselves from their texts. Each pupil worked at his or her own pace and was promoted from reader to reader when the teacher believed the pupil was ready. “Gifted” students had an opportunity to advance as they listened to the older students recite (after their own assignments were completed) and it was not uncommon for pupils in lower grades to have mastered practically everything presented to the upper grades. Margaret taught in just such a setting so it is understandable that she believed that learning of foreign languages could not be accomplished by ear. She believed a grammatical background was as important as phonics. She also believed that bookkeeping, word analysis and Latin should be taught to early elementary grades as a basic foundation for later learning. Perhaps Margaret’s most controversial theory lay in her belief that boys were not mature enough for education at age six and would develop bad habits and become discouraged if allowed to begin school at this age. In addition, she felt that she would rather start with students in the first grade “fresh for learning without having had kindergarten”. In 1966 she went on to say that she had “long pushed for raising the entrance age requirement for boys so that they are a year older than the little girls”.

After retiring, Margaret often reflected upon the changes in education. She believed that promotions for students should occur twice a year with two academic levels in each class and that student promotion into high school should be based upon satisfactory completion of eighth grade tests. She thought that having an eighth grade test would bring back the challenge for students that was necessary to promote learning. After years of teaching in one room schoolhouse settings, these ideas seemed obvious to Margaret and she knew that they worked effectively. After receiving her bachelor’s degree, Margaret stopped teaching temporarily in order to become a resident student of the University of Washington where she tutored German. Languages had always been of interest to her and she actually majored in German at the university. In high school she was an excellent Latin student and had her translations exhibited at the Alaska-Yukon Exposition as a high school student. After retiring from teaching in the early sixties, Margaret became busier than ever. She wrote poetry and music, designed clothing and even ran for public office. Even in retirement, she showed an interest in helping others. Her legacy continues to be the many children that she provided with an education in settings where the bulk of the responsibility for that education fell upon her shoulders.

On October 28, 1975 Margaret Mossford Barber passed away leaving a legacy of students empowered by education.

Sources:
Barbara Rogers Minor, “No Time for Retirement,” Monroe Monitor 3 Nov. 1966.
Obituary. “For Margaret”. Monroe Monitor, 24 Oct. 1975.
Print. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Country Life Commission,” Rural West Initiative 2012 project, Stanford University at The Bill Lane Center for the American West website, http://west.stanford.edu/search/node/roosevelt.
© Gail Dillaway 2015 All Rights Reserved

Originally published as WLP Story # 78

Dorothy May Brand Anderson, M. D.

Stanwood’s Beloved Town Doctor
by Members of the Stanwood Area Historical Society

Medical School of Pennsylvania

 

Dorothy May Brand Anderson was born March 17, 1913 to Emily Mae Knox Brand and George Edwin Brand in Bellingham. She was the second of five children. After graduating from Whatcom High School in 1930 she attended boarding school in Seattle while thinking of becoming a missionary. In the Fall of 1931 she entered University of Washington as a Pre Med major, graduating in 1935. She was accepted into the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania from which she eventually received her M.D. degree in 1941.

Medical school was delayed due to a bout of Tuberculosis during her 3rd year and a relapse about the time of graduation. Each time she returned to Seattle and entered Laurel Beach Sanatorium in West Seattle. During her second stay Dr Dorothy assisted the medical staff once she was stable. It was then that she met Richard Douglas Anderson, also battling TB. They married September 10, 1944 in Bellingham at Dr, Dorothy’s home church, First Baptist.

July 1, 1945 Dr. Dorothy began her internship at Seattle Children’s Orthopedic Hospital but was interrupted in January 1946 as she awaited the birth of her first child, Rebecca M Anderson (Coufal) born March 31, 1946. In August Dr. Dorothy returned to her internship while her husband stayed home with Rebecca. In response to an ad in the Seattle Times they visited Camano Island. They talked to Pete Jensen, local pharmacist in Stanwood (where Bank of America is now) and found him receptive to a lady doctor in town. They soon bought 5 acres with a house and barn on Good Road and only 3 miles from town.

Dr Anderson in front of her office
Dr Anderson in front of her office

Much remodeling occurred over the years (including the addition of a bathroom). During the first 2 years of practice Dr. Dorothy shared Dr. Wheeler’s (a dentist) office space (on the brick street in west Stanwood) while Dick built her an concrete block office building of her own (next to the fire station that is now Leatherheads).

December 27, 1948 son Thomas R Anderson joined the family. Dr. Dorothy worked almost up to delivery but took several weeks off after his birth. It was at this point that she hired a housekeeper who also helped with the children. During these early years of the practice Dick milked a small herd of jerseys and drove school bus to supplement their income.

The first housekeeper lived near the Andersons (Edie) and was with them for about a year. Then Mazie Fitch (Simonson) stayed with them until 1960 when the children were old enough to be on their own a bit more.

Twice during her mostly solo 30 year practice which included housecalls Dr. Dorothy attempted to have a partner in the practice. The first was Dr. Hermann in the late 1950s who stayed about 2 years. In the early 1960s another woman doctor joined her for awhile. Dr. Dorothy’s staff included a full time nurse, receptionist/ bookkeeper, Dorothy Wagness.

In 1960 Dr. Dorothy designed her dream home and she and Dick bought 100 acres ½ mile closer to town with an old farm house (still on Good Rd). Dick completed building the home in 1964 and they lived there till 1988 when the farm was sold and Dr. Dorothy moved to Bellingham to be nearer her son and his children. Dick passed away in January 1986 but not before he and Dr. Dorothy completed a mission in Eastern Nicaragua and then in the inner city clinic of San Diego. There Dick became very ill so they returned home. He had heart disease for many years.

Dr. Anderson retired
Dr. Anderson retired

While Dr. Dorothy enjoyed her medical practice, she had varied other interests that she was able to enjoy more after retiring. After Dick’s passing the farm was sold and she moved back to Bellingham to be near her son and enjoy time with his 2 sons Bryte and Leif. She mostly saw her daughter’s 4 children, Leonard, Erik, Vesta and Athena for a couple of weeks during the summers where they lived on a farm in Eastern Washington.

Dr. Dorothy enjoyed many activities in retirement in Bellingham. She died December 1996 at her home after a brief illness.

Information provided by her daughter, Rebecca M Anderson Coufal and memories of members of the community; Compiled for a program and exhibit featuring Dr. Anderson in 2015 display at the 2015 Spring Tea by Exhibit Volunteers for the Stanwood Area Historical Society.

© Stanwood Area Historical Society 2015 All Rights Reserved

Katrina Bagley

Bah – Hahtlh (Return to Good)

By Betty Lou Gaeng
Picture a sturdy little girl, her dusky skin glowing, her cheeks flushed from the fresh air. Her dark hair is held in place by a strip of leather. Her brown eyes are alert and sparkling. Her little bare feet flash as she joins the other little ones in the games the native children along the Snohomish River of Washington Territory play in the 1870s. She runs to keep up with her cousins William and Henry Shelton. Her family and playmates call her Bah-hahtlh (Return to Good). She grew up near what is now the town of Snohomish where the family lived in a longhouse with about 20 other family members, including her Shelton cousins.

Bah-hahtlh was given the English name Katrina and sometimes called Katherine or Katie. She grew from childhood to become a strong woman. In those early days it took strength to adapt to the foreign ways of the white invaders. She had that strength, and she also learned the ways of the foreigners. She became a savvy businesswoman and learned to hold what was hers—no one took it from her—especially her land. It wasn’t considered the best land—the Government didn’t allot the best to the Indians. However, it was hers and she wasn’t going to let go.

It is estimated that Bah-hahtlh was born during the early to mid-1870s. Her parents were Dan Ned Laclous-y-son and Katie Bod-lutz-za Simmons.

At the age of 15, Katie married a man from Skagit named Campbell. He was murdered and she became a 16 year-old widow. Her second husband was a man from LaConner by the name of Henry Tukius (Towheuse) Willup. Soon widowed once again, in 1894 Katie married Maurice Jim of the Tulalip Reservation. They were blessed with six children. She was widowed again in 1907 when Maurice died, and none of their children lived to survive Katie. About a year after Maurice’s death, she married for the fourth time, this husband a 20-year old Tulalip man, Francis (Frank) Sese. Once again, Katie became a widow when Francis died in 1912 at the age of 25. Two children from this marriage did not survive Katie. However, one of them, daughter Agnes lived long enough to give her mother grandchildren.

Katie’s final husband was Ambrose Bagley, from the Duwamish tribe. They married in 1921, and Katie and Ambrose worked her farmland together. A daughter named Katherine was born to them. Daughter Katherine was the first of Katie’s children to survive their mother. Katherine grew up on her mother’s land, as did David Spencer, son of Katie’s daughter Agnes. Daughter Katherine married William Campbell and gave Katie grandchildren

Katie’s large farm home was often filled with family and friends, many of them fellow church members from the old Shaker Church on the Tulalip Reservation. Katie had joined the church in 1910, where she and Ambrose in the 1920s donated the bell for the steeple.
When Katie died October 31, 1950, her age given as 74, she had survived four husbands. Her fifth husband Ambrose Bagley survived her by six years. Katrina and Ambrose Bagley are buried at Priest Point Cemetery on the Tulalip Indian Reservation.
Katie’s family still has the deed dated February 25, 1904, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, allotting land on the northeast corner of the Tulalip Indian Reservation to Katrina Jim. This is the land where Katie built her home, worked the land and survived loss after loss of her loved ones.
Katie left a wonderful legacy for her descendants. Through all the upheaval and adversities in her life, Katie retained her allotment land on the Tulalip Reservation, which is now considered to be one of the most valuable properties in Snohomish County. The front page of the September 22, 2008 edition of Everett’s Herald featured the story of Katrina Jim’s land.
Ancestors have a special place in the hearts of the First People. Katie’s descendants have not forgotten what her diligence and steadfastness have done for them. At 11 o’clock on a Saturday morning in September of 2008, 104 years after as Katrina Jim she was granted the land patent, Katie’s descendants gathered on 60 acres of what is now their land. With heartfelt love and appreciation of her legacy to them, they held a blessing for Katrina Bagley, a special woman they will always honor.

Elson James

In World War I, Katie’s son Elson James, at the age of 23, lost his life in France while serving in Company F, 30th Infantry, U.S Army. Pfc. James guided patrols in what was called No Man’s Land near Bois de la Cote, Lemont, France. It was early winter and the weather was extremely cold and damp, Elson contracted a fever, which eventually developed into pneumonia, and he died December 11, 1918 in the line of duty. Katie’s family recorded that even though she was a strong woman, Katie was heartbroken. She had just received a letter from her son telling her he would soon be home; she didn’t realize that by the time the letter arrived, she had already lost another child. Elson’s commanding officer considered Elson to be one of his best men and recommended a citation be issued citing Elson’s “exceptional skill, courage and coolness under fire in guiding patrols.” Elson James now rests at Priest Point Cemetery on the Tulalip Reservation.

Donald Campbell

Grandson Donald Campbell, son of her daughter Katherine and William Campbell, was less than a year old when Katrina died. As his uncle Elson James had done, Donald gave his life for this country. He was killed in action July 3, 1970, while serving as a corporal in the 588th Engineers Battalion in the U.S. Army in Tay Ninh, South Vietnam. Donald is buried at Mission Beach Cemetery on the Tulalip Indian Reservation.
Donald Campbell’s two older brothers, Walter and John and cousin David Spencer also served in the U.S. Army during the Vietnam era. David Spencer who had lived with his grandparents and provided information for Bah-hahtlh’s story said this about his Bagley grandparents, “they showed me how to walk my life.”

 

Sources:

Ancestry.com. U.S. Indian Census Schedules, 1885-1940 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M595, 692 rolls); Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75; National Archives, Washington, D.C. http://www.sno-isle.org/page/?ID=1246&cid=777

Washington State Digital Archive’s Death Records; Probate Records for Katherine Sese Bagley; information. http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/genealogy.aspx

Interview with Katherine Campbell, and photos provided by Katrina’s grandsons—John Campbell, Walter Campbell and David Spencer on Nov. 15, 2008;

Donald Campbell’s photo from “Faces From the Wall” (permission to print granted); NARA, Vietnam War: U.S. Military Casualties.

Mason, William H. Snohomish County in the War; The Part Played in the Great War by the Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and Patriotic Civilians of Snohomish County, Washington, U.S.A. Everett, Wash: Mason Pub. Co, 1926.

“Tribal family’s land a treasure : Theme park, theater, shops: All are options for tribal family’s land.” 2008. The Herald, [Everett] September 22, 2008 http://www.proquest.com.access-proxy.sno-isle.org/ (accessed December 3, 2008).

© 2008 Betty Lou Gaeng, All Rights Reserved;  WLP Story # 54 ~

Martha Solie Muckey

Career Social Worker ~ 1895 – 1967
WLP Story Number 18 ~
By Sandra Schumacher

Photo by Pete Kinch, Everett Herald December 13, 1965.
Photo by Pete Kinch, Everett Herald December 13, 1965.

“Everett has been very good to me, and I’ve had an interesting life.” Martha Muckey made that understatement in 1952. But the life that this woman lived was more than interesting. It was remarkable.

Martha Muckey, who was born in Wisconsin in 1895, studied music at St. Olaf’s College in Minnesota, then journeyed west during the Depression to teach high school music. Unfortunately, due to financial constraints, music teachers were not in demand. Rather than wring her hands and bemoan her fate, she found a job at a bank in Everett.

She married and settled into family life, but was widowed when her twin sons were only eight years old. Knowing she needed a career that would support her children, she enrolled at the University of Washington and studied social work. She spent twenty-eight years working for the Department of Welfare, twenty-five them as a case worker on the Tulalip reservation.

Although she worked full time, Martha somehow still found time for volunteer work with the Red Cross, Salvation Army and Volunteers of America, as well as with the blind in Snohomish County. She was named Snohomish County’s 1951 “Woman of Achievement” for her service not only in the community, but for her work state and nationwide as well. Even after retiring from social work in 1963, she continued to give of herself to the community as long as she was physically able.
Martha Muckey died in 1967, leaving behind many whose lives she had made healthier and happier, her own life a testimony to what an “ordinary” woman can accomplish.

Resources : The Everett Herald.
© 2006 Sandra Schmacher All Rights Reserved

Mary Gertrude Stockbridge Allen

Artist, Musician, Mother and Wife

By Annabelle Birkestol
The arrival in Stanwood of Mary Gertrude Stockbridge Allen over one hundred years ago marked the beginning of a new era in the cultural life of old Stanwood. She was an accomplished artist, as well as musician, and her achievements were notable.

She was born October 7, 1869 in Mendota, Illinois. Her parents were David Henry and Ann Elizabeth Murry Stockbridge. She was a descendant of John Alder and Elder Brewster who came over on the “Mayflower”. She was also descendant of Sir John Stockbridge of England.

When she was just a young child she displayed a natural aptitude for painting and gift for art. By the time she was ten years old she was working in color. She attended elementary school in Springfield, Illinois and graduated from the Morrisonville High School, also in Illinois. In later years she enrolled in various college and university courses, mainly by extension.
On December 23, 1890 she was married to Dr. Orville Reid Allen. Dr. Allen was born in Decatur, Macon County, Illinois October 11, 1965. His father, Samuel C. Allen was a native of Virginia. His mother, Jane E. (Gore) Allen was born in Ohio. The father was a well-educated and successful farmer. He figured prominently in Macon County affairs and served in a number of public offices. He and his brother in partnership with Abraham Lincoln operated a country store for a period of two years. In 1858 when Abraham Lincoln debated Stephen Douglas over the issue of slavery, it was his good friend Samuel Allen who accompanied Lincoln during these debates. Samuel Allen’s son Orville was born only a few months after Lincoln was assassinated. One of Dr. Allen’s prized possessions was a death mask of President Lincoln.
Following his graduation from Decatur High School, Orville Reid Allen studied medicine at Rush Medical College of Chicago, graduating in 1887. He first practiced medicine in southwestern Missouri for one year. In 1888 he returned to his hometown of Decatur where he remained for the next ten years. He married Mary Stockbridge in 1890. Their only son, Everett S. Allen was born in Decatur July 4, 1893. In 1898 Dr. Allen and Mary and their 5-year-old son moved to Stanwood where he established his medical practice. His first office was located on Market Street.
In 1904 the Allens built a new home which was considered one of the finest in Stanwood. It was described as a “three-story residence containing twelve rooms and six closets. It was piped for city water and serviced with steam heat and electricity from the hospital. Entrance to the residence was from the front piazza into a hall that led to a spacious living room with a large old-fashioned fireplace. Music room, library, dining room, pantry, kitchen and laundry were on the two upper floors, much of which was done in Washington fir and Alaska cedar. A hand-carved mantle was a special feature of the house.”
In January 1905 Dr. Allen opened Stanwood’s first hospital. It was located at the corner of Broadway and Augusta Streets and was described a “a modern two-story facility, complete with surgery, six private rooms, a large ward, two baths, X-ray equipment and hot air cabinet for treatment of rheumatism and inflamed joints. Also included were nurse’s quarters, doctor’s office, two sitting rooms, spacious dining room and kitchen, heating plant and its own electric light plant.” Dr. Allen also built a hospital in Burlington, although I haven’t been able to determine exactly when that occurred.

Mary Allen’s relatives played an important role in the development of early-day Stanwood. In 1887 her brother William R. Stockbridge, who came to Stanwood from Puyallup, purchased all the holdings of the original town proprietor, Henry Oliver. In the following year, 1888, a town site of twenty acres was laid out. This was surveyed by Peter Leque and filed on September 28, 1889 as a plot belonging to William R. and his wife, Augusta M. Stockbridge. The shortest street in Stanwood–Augusta Street–was named in honor of Mrs. Stockbridge. She was also noted for her patchwork quilts. One of her quilts is displayed in the D.O. Pearson House Museum. In later years, William R. Stockbridge served as president of the Bank of Commerce in Everett.

Stanwood was incorporated as a fourth class town on September 29, 1903. Dr. Allen was one of the five people chosen to serve on the first town council. He was also known as one of the early canoe doctors. Automobiles were introduced to Stanwood in May, 1907 and Dr. Allen was one of the first people to own one.

Meanwhile, Mary Allen’s paintings were bringing her fame among Northwest artists and her legacy remains to this day. The first time Mrs. Allen exhibited any of her work occurred in March 1906 when she entered one of her paintings titled “Street Arabs” at the third annual exhibit of fine are sponsored by the Women’s Century Club of Seattle. According to an article that was published in the Stanwood Tidings “this painting showed a style absolutely individual in technique, coloring and choice of subject and was the subject of many complimentary criticisms by all who visited the exhibit.”

Some time after that, Mary Allen was commissioned to paint the altar piece for the First Lutheran Church in Portland, Oregon. She also painted portraits of two Japanese heroes–one was a General, the other was a Major–who had served in the war between Russia and Japan shortly after the turn of the century.

Tragedy struck the Allen family on July 11, 1910 when their son Everett lost his life in a drowning accident while learning to swim in the Stillaguamish River. Dr. Allen and Dr. McEacheran and two nurses worked for three long hours trying to revive him, but they were unsuccessful. Just one week before, on July 4th, Everett had celebrated his seventeenth birthday. He had attended the Hill Military Academy in Portland where he held the rank of second corporal of his company. He had been home only about two weeks when the tragedy occurred. A story that circulated at the time was that a few days before he lost his life, Everett was lying on the ground one day and looking up at the sky he casually remarked to his mother, “I wish I could lie on a bed of roses”. At his funeral, his coffin was literally smothered with fresh roses. In the years following the loss of Everett, the Allens raised and educated a total of six children.
Mary Allen painted and generously donated the altar piece in time for the dedication of Freeborn Lutheran Church in September 1911. She did not sign the painting because it’s a copy of the painting, “Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane” by Hofmann, a 19th century German artist. I have been told that she also painted the altar piece for the Lutheran Church at Port Madison on Bainbridge Island.

One of Mrs. Allen’s best-known works is the idealized portrait of Marcissa Prentiss Whitman hanging in Prentiss Hall at Whitman College in Walla Walla. This work was painted on a commission from the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Dr. Allen retained his medical practice in Stanwood until August 1911 when the O.R. Allen Hospital was purchased by Dr. L. H. Jacobsen of Seattle and Dr. Donald McEacheran of Stanwood. Dr. and Mrs. Allen moved to Lake Stevens where he continued to practice medicine. In 1937 the Snohomish County Medical Association honored him at a formal dinner in Everett for having completed fifty years of serving as a medical doctor. The Allens observed their fiftieth wedding anniversary December 23, 1940. They lived for a time in Laguna Beach, California and also in Everett.

Resources :
Essex, Alice. The Stanwood Story, vols. I and II, 1971, 1975 Stanwood/Camano NEWS, Stanwood, WA
Whitfield, William. The History of Snohomish County Washington, vols. I and II, Pioneer Historical Publishing, Chicago, 1926
Pollard, Lancaster, A History of the State of Washington, Vol IV, Binfords & Mort, Portland, Oregon 1937
Trip, Dode & Sherburne F. Cook, Jr. Washington State Art and Artists, 1850 – 1950, Olympica Washington Sherburne Antiques and Fine Art, 1992
Sharylen, Maria, Artists of the Pacific Northwest / A Biographical Dictionary, 1600’s – 1970, McFarland, Jefferson N. C., 1993
Dawdy, Doris Ostrander. Artists of the American West, vol I & II. Chicago, Sage Books [1974] – 1985
Fielding, Mantle. Mantle Fielding’s Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Apollo, 1986
Who’s Who in the State of Washington, 1939-40
Newsclippings from Stanwood Tidings, Everett Herald and Seattle Post Intelligencer

© 1999 Annabelle Birkestol All Rights Reserved; WLP Story Number 7 ~